Presidency of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. In 1869, First national census: 1.877.490 inhabitants in Argentina. 187.346 in Buenos Aires.
01 03- Protesters invade the archiepiscopal palace and set fire to the School and the Jesuit’s Saviour´s church in opposition to Archbishop Aneiros.
I was born on March 1st 1875 – At that time the Jesuit’s Saviour was burnt down – Dad: Pedro Juan Oliver y Colomar – born in Palma de Mallorca – Mum: Juanita Rebasa y Alou born in Inca (Mallorca – Paternal grandparents: Pedro Juan Oliver y Mas from Palma de Mallorca – Josefa Colomar – idem – Maternal grandparents: Gabriel Rebasa y Figuerola, from Inca, surgeon – Catalina Alou y Reus from Felanixt – Mallorca – (…) ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.163
Opening of the first Normal School in Paraná, province of Entre Rios, to train teachers for common schools. First horse tramways in downtown in Buenos Aires.
In 1870, Josefina Oliver’s parents come from Palma de Mallorca, Spain to Buenos Aires on the corvette La Constancia. Juana Rebasa, widow, brings her little daughter and her mother with her. Five children are born out of the Oliver Rebasa marriage, but only Josefina and Catalina survive.
Presidency of Nicolás Avellaneda.
In 1878 Pedro Oliver stays alone to look after his daughters:
‘(…) Mum ill went to Mallorca with Granny according to doctor’s prescription (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.166 and 167.
Presidency of Julio Argentino Roca. In 1880: Buenos Aires federalization by President Nicolás Avellaneda
‘(…) From ‘80 to ‘83 we frequently visited Antonio Alfonso Cebrian – Dad’s close friend – we went at night, on the way back Dad carried Catalina asleep - On those times I remember there was a very big and shining comet - (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.163
Pedro Oliver is a loving father, and due to his anticlericalism he chooses, in 1881, the public education system for his daughters, established by Sarmiento years before. Josefina enjoys and remembers her school days:
‘(…) At the age of six I went to a school in Mexico St. near San José a huge old house – the headmistress Josefa Lopez Francia, Spanish – Cata and I attended there for three years – (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.165
Demolition of the Old Arcade (Recova Vieja) at Plaza de Mayo, unifying the former squares, Plaza del Fuerte and Plaza de la Victoria. Approval of the 1420 law of education: common, compulsory, free and secular.
Presidency of Miguel Juárez Celman. In 1886, building of the Port of Buenos Aires.
Incorporation of the districts of Belgrano and San José de Flores to the Capital and physical setting of its limits. The area of 4.400 ha. grows up to 18.100. Only 7,5 % of its 1.363 blocks are occupied. First municipal census: 433.375 inhabitants
‘(…) In 1887 we went to the school in Lorea St. (Saenz Peña nowadays) (…) Teacher Manuela Olguin- some school mates: Panchita Bach, Ernestina Zamudio (unpleasant wall-eyed), Magdalena Olguin, etc – (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.164
At the age of 14, she has to leave school to be in charge of their home, replacing her mother afected by mental difficulties.
Opening of Avenida de Mayo: Remodeling of the Cabildo. Real state expropriation and/or demolition.
‘(…) In the year 1889 it was decided at home that I didn’t attend school any more – because Mercedes was getting married (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.164.
July 26th. Park Revolution. Emergence of the political party Unión Cívica Radical and access of the middle and low classes to public positions, generally occupied by the upper classes. Opening of the Zoo, at Plaza de los Portones Square, current Plaza Italia.
A year later the Park Revolution in the city affects her very much:
‘(…) In the year ’90 - in July – I suffered a lot with the gunshots from the Revolution and the tramway carts that carried the injured – the Police Station was behind our house. (…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.165
Presidency of Carlos Pellegrini
‘On August 1st ’90 we moved to 1275 Ecuador St. – having two floors – a house of my father’s built by La Edificadora’ –(…)’ ‘I’ Autobiography Diary 16, p.165